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|Author||: Peter Dauvergne,Jane Lister|
|Editor||: John Wiley & Sons|
Timber is a vital resource that is all around us. It is the house that shelters us, the furniture we relax in, the books we read, the paper we print, the disposable diapers for our babies, and the boxes that contain our cereal, detergent, and new appliances. The way we produce and consume timber, however, is changing. With international timber companies and big box discount retailers increasingly controlling through global commodity chains where and how much timber is traded, the world's remaining old-growth forests, particularly in the developing world, are under threat of disappearing - all for the price of a consumer bargain. This trailblazing book is the first to expose what's happening inside corporate commodity chains with conclusions that fundamentally challenge our understanding of how and why deforestation persists. Authors Peter Dauvergne and Jane Lister reveal how timber now moves through long and complex supply chains from the forests of the global South through the factories of emerging economies like China to the big box retail shelves of Europe and North America. Well-off consumers are getting unprecedented deals. But the social and environmental costs are extraordinarily high as corporations mine the world's poorest regions and most vulnerable ecosystems. The growing power of big retail within these commodity chains is further increasing South-North inequities and unsustainable global consumption. Yet, as this book's highly original analysis uncovers, it is also creating some intriguing opportunities to promote more responsible business practices and better global forest governance.
|Author||: Melvin Neil Westwood|
|Editor||: Timber Press (OR)|
Beginning with the most basic decisions facing fruit growers, this standard text takes the reader step by step through the various stages of fruit growth, from flowering to postharvest storage. Separate chapters on growth regulators, dormancy and hardiness, and control of pests and diseases provide information any successful grower must master.
|Author||: Sven Thelandersson,Hans J. Larsen|
|Editor||: John Wiley & Sons|
Timber construction is one of the most prevalent methods of constructing buildings in North America and an increasingly significant method of construction in Europe and the rest of the world. Timber Engineering deals not only with the structural aspects of timber construction, structural components, joints and systems based on solid timber and engineered wood products, but also material behaviour and properties on a wood element level. Produced by internationally renowned experts in the field, this book represents the state of the art in research on the understanding of the material behaviour of solid wood and engineered wood products. There is no comparable compendium currently available on the topic - the subjects represented include the most recent phenomena of timber engineering and the newest development of practice-related research. Grouped into three different sections, 'Basic properties of wood-based structural elements', 'Design aspects on timber structures' and 'Joints and structural assemblies', this book focuses on key issues in the understanding of: timber as a modern engineered construction material with controlled and documented properties the background for design of structural systems based on timber and engineered wood products the background for structural design of joints in structural timber systems Furthermore, this invaluable book contains advanced teaching material for all technical schools and universities involved in timber engineering. It also provides an essential resource for timber engineering students and researchers, as well as practicing structural and civil engineers.
|Author||: Frances E. M. Booth,G. E. Wickens|
|Editor||: Food & Agriculture Org.|
|Author||: Michael L. Ross|
|Editor||: Cambridge University Press|
Scholars have long studied how institutions emerge and become stable. But why do institutions sometimes break down? In this book, Michael L. Ross explores the breakdown of the institutions that govern natural resource exports in developing states. He shows that these institutions often break down when states receive positive trade shocks - unanticipated windfalls. Drawing on the theory of rent-seeking, he suggests that these institutions succumb to a problem he calls 'rent-seizing' - the predatory behavior of politicians who seek to supply rent to others, and who purposefully dismantle institutions that restrain them. Using case studies of timber booms in Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines, he shows how windfalls tend to trigger rent-seizing activities that may have disastrous consequences for state institutions, and for the government of natural resources. More generally, he shows how institutions can collapse when they have become endogenous to any rent-seeking process.
|Author||: Christopher J. Mettem|
Bridges built in timber are enjoying a significant revival, both for pedestrian and light traffic and increasingly for heavier loadings and longer spans. Timber's high strength-to-weight ratio, combined with the ease and speed of construction inherent in the off-site prefabrication methods used, make a timber bridge a suitable option in many different scenarios. This handbook gives technical guidance on forms, materials, structural design and construction techniques suitable for both small and large timber bridges. Eurocode 5 Part Two (BS EN 1995-2) for the first time provides an international standard for the construction of timber bridges, removing a potential obstacle for engineers where timber construction for bridges has not – in recent centuries at least – been usual. Clearly illustrated throughout, this guide explains how to make use of this oldest construction material in a modern context to create sustainable, aesthetically pleasing, practical and durable bridges. Worldwide examples include Tourand Creek Bridge, Canada; Toijala, Finland; Punt la Resgia, Switzerland; Pont de Crest, France; Almorere Pylon Bridge, the Netherlands.
|Author||: United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry. Subcommittee on Forestry, Water Resources, and Environment|
|Author||: E. C. Ozelton,J. A. Baird|
|Editor||: John Wiley & Sons|
This major reference manual covers both overall and detail design of structural timber, including aspects such as shear deflection, creep, dynamic and lateral stability considerations for flexural members. It has been substantially revised to take account of changes since the last edition, nearly 20 years ago, and to include the latest revision of British Standard BS 5268-2 : 2002, which has brought design concepts closer to European practice and Eurocode 5. New features of the Third Edition include: revised information on bolt values including a consideration of improved performance using 8.8 grade bolts new chapters on composite sections and Eurocode 5 on structural timber new developments in materials and products horizontal roof and floor diaphragms vertical shear walls The manual continues to provide extensive tables and coefficients that will save the practising engineer many design hours. It will also be of interest as a reference for civil engineering undergraduates and to timber manufacturers. Whilst the design examples in the book are based on BS 5268, a large part of the content will have international appeal, whatever code or standard is being used. From reviews of the last edition "the complete design manual ... a 'must'" –Timber Trades Journal "the manual continues its established position as an authoritative reference and in providing numerous time saving design aids." –Institute of Wood Science Journal
|Author||: Jack A. Sobon,Roger Schroeder|
|Editor||: Storey Publishing|
Discover the satisfaction of making your own durable, economical, and environmentally friendly timber frame structures. Covering all aspects of timber frame construction, this practical guide is filled with easy-to-understand instructions, clear illustrations, and helpful photographs. With expert advice on selecting appropriate timber, necessary tools, safety considerations, joinery techniques, assembly, and raising, Jack Sobon and Roger Schroeder encourage beginners by offering complete plans for a small toolshed. Turn your dream of a timber frame house into a reality.
|Author||: Richard B. Primack,David Bray,Hugo A. Galletti,Ismael Ponciano|
|Editor||: Island Press|
Stretching across southern Mexico, northern Guatemala, and Belize, the Maya Forest, or Selva Maya, constitutes one of the last large blocks of tropical forest remaining in North and Central America. Home to Mayan-speaking people for more than 5,000 years, the region is also uncommonly rich in cultural and archaeological resources.Timber, Tourists, and Temples brings together the leading biologists, social scientists, and conservationists working in the region to present in a single volume information on the intricate social and political issues, and the complex scientifc and management problems to be resolved there. Following an introductory chapter that presents GIS and remote sensing data, the book: considers perspectives on managing forest resources and the forestry and conservation policies of each nation examines efforts by communities to manage their forest resources explains the connections between resource conservation and use by local people highlights research projects that integrate baseline biological research with impact assessments explains the need to involve local people in conservation effortTimber, Tourists, and Temples explores methods of supporting the biological foundation of the Maya Forest and keeping alive that unique and diverse ecosystem. While many areas face similar development pressures, few have been studied as much or for as long as the Maya Forest. The wealth of information included in this pathbreaking work will be valuable not only for researchers involved with the Maya Forest but for anyone concerned with the protection, use, and management of tropical forest ecosystems throughout the world.
|Author||: Steve Chappell|
|Editor||: Corn Hill Books|
Advanced Timber Framing is a comprehensive treatise on the history, design and construction of traditional timber frame roof systems. Beginning with the history and elements of natural design, author Steve Chappell unfolds the process of designing and building complex heavy timber frame roof systems beginning with the History and Evolution of medieval timber framing through the Design Theory, Layout and Joinery Execution. Using Geometry, Trigonometry and simple Mathematics, mixed with Harmonics and Musical overtones, this book is the most complete work ever written on the Architecture, Art, Design and Construction of Traditional Timber Frame Roof Systems. Along with detailed and colorful chapters on the history and evolution of timber frame roof systems, Chappell goes on to present a comprehensive and highly technical mathematical treatise on the approach to determine rotated angles in a compound roof system. These he unfolds in a sequence of axioms, which he has developed over the past 35 years through his experience of designing, building and teaching the Art of Complex Timber Frame Roof Systems. This book will have a broad appeal to the Architect, Engineer and Professional Builder, as well as to the novice or student interested in the history of the Architecture and Engineering of Traditional Timber Frames.
|Author||: Steve Chappell|
|Editor||: Fox Maple PressInc|
This revised edition of A Timber Framer s Workshop has over 150 new photos and includes updated engineering specifications for pegged joinery, along with expanded in-depth technical information on the joinery, design and construction of Traditional Timber Frames. Illustrated with over 500 photos and CAD drawings. The major portion of A Timber Framer's Workshop was first written back in 1983. Over a period of a number of years several revisions and additions took place, as it was used as the handout workshop manual for Fox Maple Timber Framing Workshops. When this book was first published in 1998, scientific testing results for pegged mortise and tenon joinery simply did not exist. The corollaries that could be made at that time were drawn from testing results for bolted connections. This is common in engineering as the essential physical laws concerning force and motion, primarily Newtonian physics, are symmetrical. However, nothing ever beats a direct test for a specific condition as the results end with an emphatic exclamation point. In the past five or six years testing has at last been carried out for a number of the most common pegged joinery conditions and the results have been published. The impetus for this revision was in large part to update and to include these new testing results so that the readers would be privy to the latest engineering results available for timber frame joinery. Along the way, over 150 new photos and drawings were added and editorial additions were made to clarify specific conditions, or to more fully explain a critical aspect of timber framing. While the essential book is the same, virtually every element is expanded in some way to paint a more vibrant picture of the technical aspects of how to build a traditional timber frame. In addition, there is an expanded element of color and nuance to help the reader more fully understand the magic of timber framing... and that timber framing really is the Jazz of building.The information contained in the book is equally accessible to both the novice looking to build their own timber frame home, and to the professional builder, architect or engineer looking for the latest technical information on this ancient structural building system.
This Report traces the flow of Oregons 2003 timber harvest through the primary timber-processing industry and describes its structure, operations and condition. Pulp and board, lumber, and plywood and veer sectors accounted for 96 percent of total industry sales of $6.7 billion. Oregons 2003 timber harvest of just over 4 billion board feet was 95 percent softwood species; 65 percent of the total was Douglas-fir. As a result of improved technology, lumber overrun increased 32 percent since 1988 to 2.07 board feet lumber tally per board foot Scribner of timber input. Despite decrease in amount of timber harvested, the industry has remained important to Oregons workforce: average earnings for a worker in Oregon forest products industry was about $50,200; Oregons average for all industries was $32,400.