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The Early Computer Industry by Anthony Gandy
A comprehensive guide to why major companies with a heritage in electronics failed to establish themselves as leaders in the computer industry. Uses case studies to analyze the efforts of GE, RCA, English Electric, EMI and Ferranti to compete with business machine firms in the early mainframe computer market, primarily focusing on the USA's IBM and the UK's ICT. These case studies cover many important themes in enterprise organization and capabilities, and how the heritage which these firms came from was important to the performance of the corporation in a new and innovative market place. It critiques the value of economies of scope in productive and technical capabilities unless matched to equal competencies in customer understanding and market reach, and provides a guide to the both the business strategies and the technologies, which were fundamental to building our current information society.
The Early Computer Industry by A. Gandy
Uses case studies to explore why large scale electronics failed to win a leadership position in the early computer industry and why IBM, a firm with a heritage in the business machines industry, succeeded. The cases cover both the US and the UK industry focusing on electronics giants GE, RCA, English Electric, EMI and Ferranti.
The Computer Industry by Jeffrey R. Yost
Traces the emergence and development of the computer industry in the United States as seen in the economic, historical, and social context of its times from the early twentieth century to the present.
From Mainframes To Smartphones by Martin Campbell-Kelly
This compact history traces the computer industry from 1950s mainframes, through establishment of standards beginning in 1965, to personal computing in the 1980s and the Internet’s explosive growth since 1995. Martin Campbell-Kelly and Daniel Garcia-Swartz describe a steady trend toward miniaturization and explain its consequences.
Early British Computers by Simon Hugh Lavington
Digital State by Thomas J. Misa
Accounts of the early events of the computing industry—the Turing machine, the massive Colossus, the ENIAC computer—are well-told tales, and equally well known is the later emergence of Silicon Valley and the rise of the personal computer. Yet there is an extraordinary untold middle history—with deep roots in Minnesota. From the end of World War II through the 1970s, Minnesota was home to the first computing-centered industrial district in the world. Drawing on rare archival documents, photographs, and a wealth of oral histories, Digital State unveils the remarkable story of computer development in the heartland after World War II. These decades found corporations—concentrated in large part in Minnesota—designing state-of-the-art mainframe technologies, revolutionizing new methods of magnetic data storage, and, for the first time, truly integrating software and hardware into valuable products for the American government and public. Minnesota-based companies such as Engineering Research Associates, Univac, Control Data, Cray Research, Honeywell, and IBM Rochester were major international players and together formed an unrivaled epicenter advancing digital technologies. These companies not only brought vibrant economic growth to Minnesota, they nurtured the state’s present-day medical device and software industries and possibly even tomorrow’s nanotechnology. Thomas J. Misa’s groundbreaking history shows how Minnesota recognized and embraced the coming information age through its leading-edge companies, its workforce, and its prominent institutions. Digital State reveals the inner workings of the birth of the digital age in Minnesota and what we can learn from this era of sustained innovation.
The Emerging Market Of China S Computer Industry by Jeff X. Zhang
Provides Western business people with the information they need to analyze market trends in the Chinese computer industry, and to understand the unwritten rules that are crucial to playing the Chinese business "game" successfully.
Programmed Inequality by Marie Hicks
In 1944, Britain led the world in electronic computing. By 1974, the British computer industry was all but extinct. Marie Hicks's Programmed inequality explores the story of labor feminization and gendered technocracy that undercut British efforts to computerize. Women were a hidden engine of growth in high technology from World War II to the 1960s. As computing experienced a gender flip, becoming male-identified in the 1960s and 1970s, labor problems grew into structural ones, and gender discrimination caused the nation's largest computer user - the civil service and sprawling public sector -- to make decisions that were disastrous for the British computer industry and the nation as a whole. Programmed inequality shows how the disappearance of women from the field has grave macroeconomic consequences for Britain, and why the United States risks repeating those errors in the twenty-first century.
Global Competitiveness Of U S Advanced Technology Industries by United States International Trade Commission
"Focusing on the early years of computer development (late 1940s to mid-1950s), this paper analyzes the role that government, especially the Department of Defense, played as a sponsor of university and corporate computer research-and-development efforts. The study examines the position of dominance the United States held in the computer industry by the late 1950s and retains today, attempting to analyze how much of this is due to early government support. The author suggests that, while U.S. dominance in the international computer market has eroded, it is not likely to lose that dominance in the near future."--Rand abstracts.