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Layered Double Hydroxides by Vicente Rives
Layered double hydroxides are one of the variety of names given to a family of layered materials first discovered in Sweden in 1842. These materials are interesting because their layer cations can be changed among a wide selection, and the interlayer anion can also be (nearly) freely chosen. Like cationic clays, they can be pillared and can exchange interlayer species -- thus increasing applications and making new routes to derivatives. The principle areas of application include catalyst support, anion scavengers, polymer stabilisers, and antacids. In the last several years, reviews and studies of LDHs have dealt with these uses. This book aims to update the current body of LDH knowledge from a wide array of views. The first section addresses the synthesis and physiochemical characterisation of these materials, and section two focuses on the applications of LDHs.
This new volume in the series Physics and Chemistry of Materials with Layered Structures satisfies the need for a comprehensive review of the progress made in the decade 1972-1982 in the field of the electronic properties of layer compounds. Some recent theoretical and experimental developments are highlighted by authori tative physicists active in current research. The previous books of this series covering similar topics are volumes 3 and 4. The present review is mainly intended to fulfill the gap up to 1982 and part of 1983. I am indebted to all the authors for their friendly co-operation and continuous effort in preparing the contributions in their own fields of competence. I am sure that both the expertise scientists and the beginners in the field of the electronic properties of layered materials will find this book a valuable tool for their research work. Warm thanks are due to Prof. E. Mooser, General Editor of the series, for his constant and authoritative advice. * * * This book has been conceived as a tribute to Prof. Franco Bassani to whom the Italian tradition in the field of layer compounds, as well as in other fields of solid state physics, owes much. The authors of this review have all benefited at some time of their professional life from close cooperation with him. Istituto di Struttura della Materia, VINCENZO GRASSO Universitd di Messina IX V Grasso (ed.). Electronic Structure and Electronic Transitions in Layered Materials. ix.
Intercalated Layered Materials by Francis Lévy
Materials with layered structures remain an extensively investigated subject in current physics and chemistry. Most of the promising technological applications however deal with intercalation compounds of layered materials. Graphite intercalation compounds have now been known for a long time. Intercalation in transition metal dichalcogenides, on the other hand, has been investigated only recently. The amount of information on intercalated layered materials has increased far beyond the original concept for this volume in the series Physics and Chemistry of Materials with Layered Structures. The large size of this volume also indicates how important this field of research will be, not only in basic science, but also in industrial and energy applications. In this volume, two classes of materials are included, generally investigated by different scientists. Graphite intercalates and intercalates of other inorganic com pounds actually constitute separate classes of materials. However, the similarity between the intercalation techniques and some intercalation processes does not justify this separation, and accounts for the inclusion of both classes in this volume. The first part of the volume deals with intercalation processes and intercalates of transition metal dichalcogenides. Several chapters include connected topics necessary to give a good introduction or comprehensive review of these types of materials. Organic as well as inorganic intercalation compounds are treated. The second part includes contributions concerning graphite intercalates. It should be noted that graphite intercalation compounds have already been mentioned in Volumes I and V.
Handbook Of Layered Materials by Scott M. Auerbach
Focusing on layered compounds at the core of materials intercalation chemistry, this reference comprehensively explores clays and other classes of materials exhibiting the ability to pillar, or establish permanent intracrystalline porosity within layers. It offers an authoritative presentation of their fundamental properties as well as summaries of
Layered Double Hydroxides by Xue Duan
D.G. Evans, R.C.T. Slade: Structural Aspects of Layered Double Hydroxides.- J. He, M. Wei, B. Li, Y. Kang, D.G. Evans, X. Duan: Preparation of Layered Double Hydroxides.- C. Taviot-Gueho, F. Leroux: In Situ Polymerization and Intercalation of Polymers in Layered Double Hydroxides.- G.R. Williams, A.I. Khan, D. O'Hare: Mechanistic and Kinetic Studies of Guest Ion Intercalation into Layered Double Hydroxides Using Time-Resolved, In-Situ X-Ray Powder Diffraction.- F. Li, X. Duan: Applications of Layered Double Hydroxides
Layered Global Player by Henri de Waele
Layered Global Player offers a concise but thorough overview of the principles of EU external relations law. By closely examining the role of the European Union on the global scene, it aims to provide a systematic overview of the relevant rules and competences, reflecting the legal developments in their historical and political context. The book contains up-to-date analyses of topics such as the Common Foreign and Security Policy, the Common Security and Defence Policy and the Common Commercial Policy. Moreover, it devotes specific attention to the EU’s external powers with regard to the environment, fundamental human rights and development cooperation. It also includes a dedicated chapter exploring the relations with neighbouring countries, as well as one that elucidates the complex interplay between rules of domestic, European and international provenance. Overall, this book couples an innovative design with comprehensive coverage and an engaging style of writing. Its compactness and accessibility enable readers to master the main features of this dynamic field of law with ease, making it an indispensible resource for scholars and practitioners alike.
The structural phase transition is one of the most fundamental problems in solid state physics. Layered transition-metal dichalcogenides provide us with a most exciting area for the study of structural phase transitions that are associated with the charge density wave (CDW). A large variety of structural phase transitions, such as commensurate and incommensurate transitions, and the physical proper ties related to the formation of a CDW, have been an object of intense study made for many years by methods employing modem microscopic techniques. Rather recently, efforts have been devoted to the theoretical understanding of these experimental results. Thus, McMillan, for example, has developed an elegant phenomenological theory on the basis of the Landau free energy expansion. An extension of McMillan's theory has provided a successful understanding of the successive phase transitions observed in the IT- and 2H-compounds. In addition, a microscopic theory of lattice instability, lattice dynamics, and lattice distortion in the CDW state of the transition-metal dichalcogenides has been developed based on their electronic structures. As a result, the driving force of the CDW formation in the IT- and 2H-compounds has become clear. Furthermore, the effect of lattice fluctuations on the CDW transition and on the anomalous behavior of various physical properties has been made clear microscopically.
The ontology translation problem (a.k.a. ontology interoperability problem) appears when we decide to reuse an ontology (or part of an ontology) with a tool or language that is different from the ones in which the ontology is available. If we force each ontology-based system developer, individually, to commit to the task of translating and incorporating to their systems the ontologies that they need, they will require a lot of effort and time to achieve their objective. This book presents two contributions to the current state-of-the-art on ontology translation among languages and / or tools. The first contribution is a proposal for a new model for building and maintaining ontology translation systems, characterised by two main features. At first, it identifies four layers where ontology translation decisions can be taken: lexical, syntax, semantic and semiotic. This layered architecture is based on existing work in formal languages and the theory of signs. Secondly, it proposes to represent ontology translation decisions declaratively. The second contribution characterises existing ontology translation approaches from the perspectives of semantic and pragmatic preservation, that is, consequence and intended meaning preservation respectively. It also describes the lifecycle of ontologies in cyclic ontology translation processes, which are defined as successive translations where the initial source and final target formats coincide.
Neutron Scattering In Layered Copper Oxide Superconductors by Albert Furrer
The phenomenon of superconductivity - after its discovery in metals such as mercury, lead, zinc, etc. by Kamerlingh-Onnes in 19]] - has attracted many scientists. Superconductivity was described in a very satisfactory manner by the model proposed by Bardeen, Cooper and Schrieffer, and by the extensions proposed by Abrikosov, Gorkov and Eliashberg. Relations were established between superconductivity and the fundamental properties of solids, resulting in a possible upper limit of the critical temperature at about 23 K. The breakthrough that revolutionized the field was made in 1986 by Bednorz and Muller with the discovery of high-temperature superconductivity in layered copper-oxide perovskites. Today the record in transition temperature is 133 K for a Hg based cuprate system. The last decade has not only seen a revolution in the size of the critical temperature, but also in the myriads of research groups that entered the field. In addition, high-temperature superconductivity became a real interdisciplinary topic and brought together physicists, chemists and materials scientists who started to investigate the new compounds with almost all the available experimental techniques and theoretical methods. As a consequence we have witnessed an avalanche of publications which has never occurred in any field of science so far and which makes it difficult for the individual to be thoroughly informed about the relevant results and trends. Neutron scattering has outstanding properties in the elucidation of the basic properties of high-temperature superconductors.
The goal of the series Physics and Chemistry of Materials with Layered Structures is to give a critical survey of our present knowledge on a large family of materials which can be described as solids containing molecules which in two dimensions extend to infinity and which are loosely stacked on top of each other to form three dimensional crystals. Of course, the physics and chemistry of these crystals are specific chapters in ordinary solid state science, and many a scientist hunting for new phenomena has in the past been disappointed to find that materials with layered structures are not entirely exotic. Their electron and phonon states are not two dimensional, and the high hopes held by some for spectacular dimensionality effects in superconductivity were shattered. Nevertheless, the structural features and their physical and chemical consequences singularize layered structures sufficiently to make them a fascinating subject of research. This is all the more true since they are met in insulators and semiconductors as well as in normal and superconducting metals. Although for the time being the series is intentionally limited to cover inorganic materials only, the many known organic layered structures may well be the subject of future volumes. Among the noteworthy peculiarities of layered structures, we mention specific growth mechanisms and crystal habits. Polytypism is very common and it is fasci nating indeed to find up to 240 different polytypes in the same chemical substance.