Antitrust Law In Perspective
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|Author||: Andrew I. Gavil,William E. Kovacic,Jonathan B. Baker|
|Editor||: West Academic|
Gavil, Kovacic and Baker's Antitrust Law in Perspective: Cases, Concepts, and Problems in Competition Policy builds on the strengths of the first edition with completely updated cases, notes, and sidebars, reflecting the latest developments and commentary. It includes: Expanded economic coverage A thoroughly revised chapter on dominant firm conduct A thoroughly revised chapter on distribution restraints that comprehensively addresses the Supreme Court's Leegin decision Revised and expanded treatment of the analysis of competitor collaborations and joint ventures Revised state-of-the art conspiracy and merger chapters Increased attention to international and comparative developments Some older cases have been reduced to notes in favor of newer cases that better reflect current trends.
|Author||: Nicola Giocoli|
Can a price ever be too low? Can competition ever be ruinous? Questions like these have always accompanied American antitrust law. They testify to the difficulty of antitrust enforcement, of protecting competition without protecting competitors. As the business practice that most directly raises these kinds of questions, predatory pricing is at the core of antitrust debates. The history of its law and economics offers a privileged standpoint for assessing the broader development of antitrust, its past, present and future. In contrast to existing literature, this book adopts the perspective of the history of economic thought to tell this history, covering a period from the late 1880s to present times. The image of a big firm, such as Rockefeller’s Standard Oil or Duke’s American Tobacco, crushing its small rivals by underselling them is iconic in American antitrust culture. It is no surprise that the most brilliant legal and economic minds of the last 130 years have been engaged in solving the predatory pricing puzzle. The book shows economic theories that build rigorous stories explaining when predatory pricing may be rational, what welfare harm it may cause and how the law may fight it. Among these narratives, a special place belongs to the Chicago story, according to which predatory pricing is never profitable and every low price is always a good price.
|Author||: Anna Piszcz|
|Editor||: Wydawnictwo Temida 2|
|Author||: Pradeep S. Mehta|
"This edited volume identifies the various country specific factors that warrant changes in the design and implementation of competition laws. The book covers case studies of nine countries of differing sizes and at varying stages of economic development, that have at one stage or another repealed extant competition laws for new ones, and seeks to examine the motivations and contexts under which this was done. The countries examined include the Czech Republic, Hungary, India, Ireland, Poland, Serbia, South Africa, Tanzania and the UK. Tracing the evolution of competition regimes in the countries covered, the book provides lessons for countries still in the process of forming their competition regimes. The contributions show that the road to strong competition regimes is seldom smooth, and that social, economic and political factors in the country hugely impact on the pace and effectiveness of competition reforms. The volume also addresses the issue of when the development of competition policies and laws can be seen to be in conflict with national development strategies. This book will be extremely useful for academics and students in the fields of global competition, law and economics, and development economics, as well as for policymakers. Pradeep S. Mehta is the founder Secretary General of Consumer Unity & Trust Society (CUTS), a leading economic policy research, advocacy and networking organisation, and serves on several policy-making bodies of the Government of India, related to trade, investment, competition, environment and consumer affairs"--
|Author||: Richard A. Posner|
'A creative, informative, and highly readable narrative... The book consists of four sections dealing in turn with (1) the law and economics of antitrust policy; (2) the problem of collusion; (3) the question of exclusionary practices; and (4) the difficulties of enforcement... This is a provocative work that judiciously raises pertinent questions about our antitrust policy.'-Robert J. Steamer, Perspective
|Author||: Keith N. Hylton|
|Editor||: Cambridge University Press|
Preface p. xi 1 Economics p. 1 I. Definitions p. 1 II. Perfect Competition Versus Monopoly p. 9 III. Further Topics p. 21 2 Law and Policy p. 27 I. Some Interpretation Issues p. 28 II. Enacting the Antitrust Law p. 30 III. What Should Antitrust Law Aim to Do? p. 40 3 Enforcement p. 43 I. Optimal Enforcement Theory p. 43 II. Enforcement Provision of the Antitrust Laws p. 47 Appendix p. 64 4 Cartels p. 68 I. Cartels p. 68 II. Conscious Parallelism p. 73 III. Conclusion p. 89 5 Development of Section 1 Doctrine p. 90 I. The Sherman Act Versus the Common Law p. 90 II. Rule of Reason and Per-Se Rule p. 104 III. Conclusion p. 112 6 Rule of Reason and Per-Se Rule p. 113 I. The Case for Price Fixing p. 113 II. Per-Se and Rule of Reason Analysis: Further Developments p. 116 III. Per-Se Versus Rule of Reason Tests: Understanding the Supreme Court's Justification for the Per-Se Rule p. 129 7 Agreement p. 132 I. The Development of Inference Doctrine p. 133 II. Rejection of Unilateral Contract Theory p. 140 8 Facilitating Mechanisms p. 144 I. Data Dissemination Cases p. 145 II. Basing Point Pricing and Related Practices p. 154 III. Basing Point Pricing: Economics p. 160 9 Boycotts p. 166 I. Pre-Socony p. 166 II. Post-Socony p. 170 III. Post-BMI/Sylvania p. 181 IV. Conclusion p. 184 10 Monopolization p. 186 I. Development of Section 2 Doctrine p. 186 II. Leveraging and Essential Facility Cases p. 202 III. Predatory Pricing p. 212 IV. Conclusion p. 228 11 Power p. 230 I. Measuring Market Power p. 230 II. Determinants of Market Power p. 235 III. Substitutability and the Relevant Market: Cellophane p. 237 IV. Multimarket Monopoly and the Relevant Market: Alcoa p. 239 V. Measuring Power: Guidelines p. 243 12 Attempts p. 244 I. The Swift Formula and Modern Doctrine p. 244 II. Dangerous Probability Requirement p. 248 13 Vertical Restraints p. 252 I. Resale Price Maintenance p. 252 II. Vertical Nonprice Restraints p. 262 III. Manufacturer Retains Title p. 267 IV. Agreement p. 270 14 Tying and Exclusive Dealing p. 279 I. Introduction p. 279 II. Early Cases p. 284 III. Development of Per-Se Rule p. 286 IV. Tension Between Rule of Reason Arguments and Per-Se Rule p. 295 V. Technological Tying p. 301 VI. Exclusive Dealing p. 303 Appendix p. 307 15 Horizontal Mergers p. 311 I. Reasons for Merging and Implications for Law p. 311 II. Horizontal Merger Law p. 317 III. Conclusion p. 330 Appendix p. 330 16 Mergers, Vertical and Conglomerate p. 333 I. Vertical Mergers p. 333 II. Conglomerate Mergers p. 344 III. Concluding Remarks p. 351 17 Antitrust and the State p. 352 I. Noerr-Pennington Doctrine p. 354 II. Parker Doctrine p. 371 III. Some Final Comments: Error Costs and Immunity Doctrines p. 375 Index p. 379.
|Author||: Keith N. Hylton|
|Editor||: Edward Elgar Publishing|
In this outstanding new book Professor Keith Hylton and his collaborators examine what antitrust law has become over the past ten years, a time in which economic analysis has become its undisputed core. What has become of the old antitrust doctrine, what are the new issues for the immediate future? This book brings together the leading experts to examine this silent revolution at the core of US domestic policy. Mark Grady, UCLA School of Law, US Hylton s Antitrust Law and Economics brings together many of the best authors writing in antitrust today. Their essays range widely, covering proof of agreement under the Sherman Act, group boycotts, monopolization and essential facilities, tying and other vertical restraints, and merger policy. The writing is clear, accessible but still technically sophisticated and comprehensive. This book represents the best in contemporary antitrust scholarship, by authors who understand and are able to communicate the centrality of economic analysis to antitrust. No antitrust lawyer, serious antitrust student, or antitrust economist should be without this book. Herbert Hovenkamp, University of Iowa College of Law, US This comprehensive book provides an extensive overview of the major topics of antitrust law from an economic perspective. Its in-depth treatment and analysis of both the law and economics of antitrust is presented via a collection of interconnected original essays. The contributing authors are among the most influential scholars in antitrust, with a rich diversity of backgrounds. Their entries cover, amongst other issues, predatory pricing, essential facilities, tying, vertical restraints, enforcement, mergers, market power, monopolization standards, and facilitating practices. This well-organized and substantial work will be invaluable to professors of American antitrust law and European competition law, as well as students specializing in competition law. It will also be an important reference for professors and graduate students of economics and business.
|Author||: Richard A. Posner|
|Editor||: University of Chicago Press|
When it was first published a quarter of a century ago, Richard Posner's exposition and defense of an economic approach to antitrust law was a jeremiad against the intellectual disarray that then characterized the field. As other perspectives on antitrust law have fallen away, Posner's book has played a major role in transforming the field of antitrust law into a body of economically rational principles largely in accord with the ideas set forth in the first edition. Today's antitrust professionals may disagree on specific practices and rules, but most litigators, prosecutors, judges, and scholars agree that the primary goal of antitrust laws should be to promote economic welfare, and that economic theory should be used to determine how well business practices conform to that goal. In this thoroughly revised edition, Posner explains the economic approach to new generations of lawyers and students. He updates and amplifies his approach as it applies to the developments, both legal and economic, in the antitrust field since 1976. The "new economy," for example, has presented a host of difficult antitrust questions, and in an entirely new chapter, Posner explains how the economic approach can be applied to new industries such as software manufacturers, Internet service providers, and those that provide communications equipment and services. "The antitrust laws are here to stay," Posner writes, "and the practical question is how to administer them better-more rationally, more accurately, more expeditiously, more efficiently." This fully revised classic will continue to be the standard work in the field.
|Author||: Irina Haracoglou|
|Editor||: Edward Elgar Publishing|
This is an incredibly interesting book on an increasingly pertinent topic. . . the book is succinctly written and provides a comprehensive overview of EU law. . . providing a really useful analysis of the European cases concerned with the imposition of a duty to deal in relation to intellectual property. . . This book is a thoroughly enjoyable read, and perhaps because of its brevity the author retains her focus on the central issues being examined. I found it to be engaging and thought provoking. Jane Nielsen, Competition and Consumer Law Journal The book caters for various groups ranging from those with a general interest in competition law, patent law and/or biopharmaceuticals, to students who want to understand how competition and intellectual property work in practice (or to understand the interface between the two policies), and from practitioners and policymakers to people within the biopharmaceutical industry itself. Journal of Intellectual Property Rights Using the example of research tools in biopharmaceutical research and innovation, this book examines the complexities of the relationship between two fundamental areas of law and policy intellectual property rights and competition law. It addresses a question that is certain to become paramount in other industries also: how to strike the balance between initial and follow-on innovation so as to ensure that access to essential research tools (or other fundamental elements to follow-on innovation) is not impeded. The book concludes by suggesting how competition law could be used to complement the patent balance. Competition Law and Patents caters for various groups ranging from those with a general interest in competition law, patent law and/or biopharmaceuticals, to students who want to understand how competition and intellectual property work in practice (or to understand the interface between the two policies), and from practitioners and policymakers to people within the biopharmaceutical industry itself.
|Author||: Johannes Paha|
This book reviews and presents antitrust law compliance programmes from different angles. These programmes have been increasingly implemented and refined by firms over recent years, and various aspects of this topic have been researched. The contributions in this book extend beyond the treatment of legal issues and show how lawyers, economists, psychologists, and business scholars can help design antitrust law compliance programmes more effectively and run them more efficiently.
|Author||: Simon Vande Walle|
Companies in Europe and Japan are increasingly the target of private antitrust litigation. These lawsuits are being facilitated by favorable case law, legislative changes, and a growing awareness of antitrust remedies in all layers of society. This book analyzes and compares this burgeoning area of litigation in the European Union and Japan. It examines the legal framework for these actions and takes stock of the hundreds of actions for damages and injunctive relief that have been brought in Japan and the EU. It also looks at the novel contexts in which private litigants are invoking antitrust violations, such as in derivative suits and in actions to challenge arbitral awards. Finally, the book assesses the impact of private litigation on the enforcement of antitrust law and shows how Japan's experience can be useful for Europe and vice versa in shaping future reforms.
|Author||: Steven Van Uytsel,Shuya Hayashi,John O. Haley|
|Editor||: Edward Elgar Publishing|
This timely Research Handbook provides a comprehensive overview and discussion of the substantive competition law provisions of the ASEAN Plus Three region, including Hong Kong and Taiwan. Taking a unique comparative perspective, chapters examine Asian competition laws in relation to the existing laws that served as models for them, analysing how and why they deviate.
|Author||: David Sparks Evans,Antonio Bavasso,Douglas H. Ginsburg|
This book is a selection of 14 brief essays designed to provide a multinational perspective on the current state, and future, of competition law in media markets. Whether it pertains to platform markets, crypto-currencies, or newspaper mergers, the reality is that antitrust enforcement has turned its collective eye towards the global economy's media markets. It highlights the different regulatory approaches and various issues relating to the application of competition law to media markets.
|Author||: Klaus Mathis,Avishalom Tor|
This book further develops both the traditional and the behavioural approach to competition law, and applies these approaches to a variety of timely issues. It discusses several fundamental questions regarding competition law and economics, and explores the applications of competition law and economics. In turn, the book analyses the interplay of intellectual property rights and patents in various aspects of competition law, and investigates the impacts that developments in information technology, such as big data analytics, have on competition law. The book also discusses the impact of energy law reforms on energy markets from a competition law perspective. Competition law is a classic field of economic analysis. This is largely due to the fact that competition law uses terms such as market, price, and competition and must therefore rely on economic know-how and analyses. In the United States, economic analysis has greatly influenced not just the scholarship on antitrust law, but also judicial decisions and agency enforcement. Antitrust law and economics are based on the traditional paradigm of neoclassical economics, which relies on the assumption that the market players, i.e. consumers and producers, are rational. This approach to competition law was later received in Europe under the banner of a “more economic approach”. For the past two decades, behavioural law and economics, which seeks to generate better insights into legal phenomena by providing more realistic psychological foundations for economic models, and to offer a multitude of applications in legislation and legal adjudication, has challenged the traditional economic approach to law in general and, more recently, to competition law specifically.
|Author||: Hedvig Schmidt|
|Editor||: Edward Elgar Publishing|
. . . a must-read for anyone wanting to study tying in more detail. . . the book offers a very thorough analysis of tying, together with some recommended improvements to the way in which tying is currently assessed under the EU and the US antitrust rules. Common Market Law Review Schmidt s Competition Law, Innovation and Antitrust is a superb introduction to the subject of tying arrangements and other bundled sales in high technology markets, principally as they are treated under US antitrust law and EU competition law. Schmidt thoroughly assesses the economics of such arrangements, the benefits they confer and the potential harms they impose, and then gives a positive introduction to the law. This is a comprehensive treatment of its subject and an indispensible aid to the competition law scholar or practitioner. Herbert Hovenkamp, University of Iowa, College of Law, US This innovative book assesses the hotly debated topic of tying from three different perspectives: competition law, economics and intellectual property rights. It highlights the faults and benefits of the current approaches to tying under EC competition law and US antitrust law. In the light of modern economic thinking, the recent review of Article 82 EC, and Sherman Act, Section 2, the author identifies a more economic approach to tying that moves away from the per se illegality label that has so far impinged on tying case law. Hedvig Schmidt recognizes the significance that tying can play on innovation and product development, and thus suggests a new approach which carves out a safe haven for technological integrated products to ensure continuous stimulation of innovation. With comparative assessments and investigations, this book is a must-read for academics specializing in competition law and theory, as well as practitioners and policy-makers of competition law and intellectual property.
|Author||: Andrew I. Gavil,Harry First|
|Editor||: MIT Press|
A comprehensive account of the decades-long, multiple antitrust actions against Microsoft and an assessment of the effectiveness of antitrust law in the digital age. For more than two decades, the U.S. Department of Justice, various states, the European Commission, and many private litigants pursued antitrust actions against the tech giant Microsoft. In investigating and prosecuting Microsoft, federal and state prosecutors were playing their traditional role of reining in a corporate power intent on eliminating competition. Seen from another perspective, however, the government's prosecution of Microsoft—in which it deployed the century-old Sherman Antitrust Act in the volatile and evolving global business environment of the digital era—was unprecedented. In this book, two experts on competition policy offer a comprehensive account of the multiple antitrust actions against Microsoft—from beginning to end—and an assessment of the effectiveness of antitrust law in the twenty-first century. Gavil and First describe in detail the cases that the Department of Justice and the states initiated in 1998, accusing Microsoft of obstructing browser competition and perpetuating its Windows monopoly. They cover the private litigation that followed, and the European Commission cases decided in 2004 and 2009. They also consider broader issues of competition policy in the age of globalization, addressing the adequacy of today's antitrust laws, their enforcement by multiple parties around the world, and the difficulty of obtaining effective remedies—all lessons learned from the Microsoft cases.
|Author||: Josef Drexl,Nari Lee|
|Editor||: Edward Elgar Publishing|
Public health, safety and access to reasonably priced medicine are common policy goals of pharmaceutical regulations. As both the context for innovation and competitive structure change, industry actors dynamically challenge the balance between the incentive for protection and the achievement of those policy goals. Considering the arguments from the perspectives of innovation, competition law and patent law, this book explores the difficult question of balancing protection with access, highlighting the difficulties in harmonization and coordination. The contributors to this book, including academics, judges and practitioners from Europe, the US and Japan, explore to what extent patent strategies and life-cycle management practices take advantage of patent laws and health-care regulation and disrupt the necessary balance between incentives for innovation and access to affordable medicine and health care. Addressing fundamental questions in the field of pharmaceutical innovation, this book will appeal to scholars and practitioners in intellectual property, competition law and life sciences regulation, as well as pharmaceutical companies and regulators.